All About India

 Tamil and Sanskrit, two of the world's most influential classical languages, originated in the modern-day nation of India. These two languages have a combined age of over three thousand years. Hinduism was created in this nation and is still practiced by the majority of Indians. The Maurya Empire was later established in 300 BC by a king by the name of Chandragupt Maurya. The majority of South Asia became a single nation as a result. Numerous other nations began invading India starting in 180 BC. Even later (100 BC AD 1100), other Indian dynasties (empires), such as the Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas, and Pandyas, arrived. The science, art, and writing of southern India at that time were well known. The Cholas of Thanjavur were seafaring warriors who conquered Malaya, Borneo, and Cambodia. In Southeast Asia, the Cholas' influence is still palpable.

Around 1000, a large number of dynasties ruled India. These included the Mughal, Vijayanagara, and Maratha empires. European nations began invading India in the 1600s, and by 1856, the British had taken over the majority of the country.
Millions of people began peacefully protesting British rule in the early 1900s. Mahatma Gandhi, who was one of the leaders of the freedom movement, only employed nonviolent methods such as "ahimsa," which means "non-violence.". Indian independence from the British Empire was peacefully achieved on August 15, 1947. The Indian Constitution was established on January 26, 1950. Indians commemorate Republic Day on this day each year. Jawaharlal Nehru was India's first legitimate leader (Prime Minister).
India adopted a socialist planned economy after 1947. It is a founding member of both the United Nations and the Non-Aligned Movement. Since gaining independence from Britain, it has engaged in a number of wars, including those with Pakistan in 1947–1948, 1965–1971–1999, and in Goa–a port built by the Portuguese and a city that did not become a part of India until 1961. India had to use force because the Portuguese would not give it to the nation; as a result, the Portuguese were vanquished. Additionally, India conducted nuclear tests in 1974 and 1998. One of the few nations with nuclear weapons is this one. One of the world's economies that has grown the fastest since 1991 is India.

Of all the democracies in the world, India has the largest population. Legislative, executive, and judicial branches make up India's government. India's Parliament, which is located in New Delhi, the country's capital, makes up the legislative branch. The upper house, known as the Rajya Sabha, and the lower house, known as the Lok Sabha, make up India's parliament. There are 552 members of the Lok Sabha and 250 of the Rajya Sabha. The President of India is chosen for a five-year term in office, along with the Vice President, Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister, who wields the lion's share of power, is electable by the President. On May 16, 2014, Prime Minister Narendra Modi was assisted in taking office by the Council of Ministers, which includes the Ministers of Defense. He serves as India's 19th prime minister. Prime Ministers have more authority than presidents.
The courts of India, including the Supreme Court, make up the judicial branch. The Supreme Court is presided over by India's Chief Justice. Members of the Supreme Court have the authority to prevent a law from being passed by Parliament if they believe it to be illegal and in violation of the Indian Constitution. There are 24 high courts in India.

India is the name given to the enormous peninsula that the continent of Asia thrusts outward to the south of the magnificent mountain ranges that stretch in a sword-like curve across the southern border of Tibet. This vast region we call India is shaped like an atypical quadrilateral and is deserving of the name "subcontinent.". On its south, west, and east is the Great Ocean, and the Himavat range stretches along its north like the string of a bow, according to ancient geographers who described India as being "constituted with a four-fold conformation.". The name Himavat is used in the passage above to refer to both the snow-capped Himalayan ranges and their lower-lying offshoots, the Patkai, Lushai, and Chittagong Hills in the east and the Sulaiman and Kirthar ranges in the west. These descend to the sea and divide India from the hilly Iranian tableland on the one hand and the forested Irrawaddy valley on the other. The Himalayas are glistening with myth and mystery, rising high in breathtaking splendor. These mountain ranges, which are the newest and tallest, supply the Ganga with unceasing snowfall. The people of Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh reside in the Himalayas. Due to their importance in every Indian's life, Indians adore these peaks. The mountains are revered by Native Americans as they would the father. Hermits continue to live in the caves of the snow-covered peaks even now, as urban India races against time. They are in search of the divine. Not a surprise, given that this century alone has produced some of the greatest philosophers in history, including Ramana Maharishi, Swami Vivekananda, Ramakrishna Paramhansa, and J. Krishnamurti.

1) With 1.3 billion people, India is the largest democracy in the world. Moreover, after China with its     1.4 billion people, it is the second-largest nation in the world.

2) There are six seasons or rituals in the Hindu calendar: hemant ritu (pre-winter), sharad ritu (autumn), varsha ritu (monsoon), vasant ritu (spring), and grishma ritu (summer).

3) In India, there are more than 19,500 mother tongues that are spoken. The nation has one of the world's most varied cultures, with various regions corresponding to various languages and traditions.

4) The first manned space mission from India will be launched in 2022. The $1.4 billion budget for the project was announced by the Indian government.

5)  Vivian Mary Hatley, better known by her role as Scarlett O'Hara in the beloved "Gone With the Wind," was born in England on November 18.India's Darjeeling on May 5, 1913.
Upon Vivian's sixth birthday, she left for England.

6) According to the BBC, the majority of Indians don't watch Bollywood movies. With only 13,000 screens, compared to about 40,000 in the United States, the nation is rumored to be obsessed with their extravagant musical productions.

7) India produced the first Asian woman to triumph at the Miss World pageant. Reita Faria Powell is a model and doctor who was born in Mumbai in 1943. In 1966, she won the beauty pageant.

8) There are six different types of tastes in Indian cuisine, one of the most well-known types of food in the world: sweet (madhura), salty (lavana), sour (amala), pungent (katu), bitter (tikta), and astringent (kasya).

9) Speaking of food, Scotland is where the traditional Indian dish chicken Tikka Masala, a symbol of the nation's culture, originated.

Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal was dedicated to Mumtaz Mahall, and he had it built in her honor when she died on 17 June 1631 while giving birth to their 14th child, Gauhara Begum. In 1632, the mausoleum was built on the grounds of which the surrounding structures and garden were also completed; in 1648, it was completed, five years later. Evidence from records at the imperial court indicating that Shah Jahan (the author of the Taj Mahal) experienced sorrow after the death of Mumtaz Mahan. He did not show others the same degree of affection that he had shown her while she was alive, according to modern historians Muhammad Amin Qazvini, Abdul Hamid Lahori, and Muhammad Saleh Kamboh. He refrained from attending royal functions for a week and abandoned extravagant clothing and music consumption for two years due to his grief. Shah Jahan was captivated by the natural beauty of the area where Raja Jai Singh I's mansion was situated on the south side of Agra. He decided to construct Mumtaz' tomb in this location, and Jain Singh gave it to the emperor.

In Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India, there is an ivory-white marble mausoleum called the Taj Mahal or "Crown of the Palace," situated on the right bank of river Yamuna. Shah Jahan, the fifth Mughal emperor during his reign (1628–1658), Shah Jahan built a tomb for Mumtaz Mahal, his favorite wife, as well as his own tomb. The tomb is the focal point of a 17 hectare (42 acre) complex that also includes a guest house and a mosque. It is situated in formal gardens that are surrounded on three sides by a crenellated wall.

The mausoleum was essentially finished in 1643, but other parts needed 10 years of work before the Taj Mahal complex was completed entirely by 1653, for a price tag of approximately $30 billion as of 2020. A board of architects led by the emperor's court architect Ustad Ahmad Lahori oversaw the construction project, which employed about 20,000 artisans. The Taj employs a variety of symbolism to reflect both divine and natural beauty.

The UNESCO World Heritage Site designation was given to the Taj Mahal in 1983, as it is considered the most beloved piece of Muslim art in India. Many people believe it to be the finest example of Mughal architecture and a representation of India's long history. The Taj Mahal draws more than 6 million visitors annually and was named one of the New 7 Wonders of the World (2000-2007) initiative's winners in 2007.

Exterior Decorations
One of the most impressive aspects of Mughal architecture can be seen in the exterior embellishments of buildings like the Taj Mahal. The decorations are progressively more detailed as the surface area changes. The decorative elements were created by means of paint, stucco, stone inlays, carvings, or carving. The decorations can be categorized into calligraphy, abstract forms, and vegetative motifs as per the Islamic law's prohibition on anthropomorphic forms. The complex is embellished with Qur'anic verses that are scattered throughout. Amanat Khan was the one who picked out the passages, according to recent research.

The calligraphy on the Great Gate declares, O Soul, that you are at rest. You and the Lord are at peace; so go back to the Father.’ The calligraphy dates from 1609, made by a Abdul Haq callichrist. In recognition of his "dazzling virtuosity," Shah Jahan bestowed upon him the title of "Amanat Khan.". The words "Written by the insignificant being, Amanat Khan Shirazi" are inscribed next to some verses from the Qur'an at the base of the interior dome. A significant portion of the calligraphy consists of florid thuluth script made of jasper or black marble inlaid in white marble panels. In order to minimize the skewing effect when viewed from below, higher panels are written in a slightly larger script. The marble cenotaphs in the tomb's calligraphy are extremely intricate and delicate.

The plinth, minarets, gateway, mosque, jawab, and to a lesser extent the surfaces of the tomb are among the many places where abstract forms are used. The intricate geometric forms on the sandstone buildings' domes and vaults are carved out using tracery incised painting. Numerous adjacent elements' spaces are defined by herringbone inlays. Sandstone structures often have white inlays, and white marbles often have dark or black inlays. The marble buildings' mortared surfaces have been stained or painted in a striking color, resulting in a complex[citation needed] array of geometric patterns. Tessellation patterns are present on floors and walkways, often made of blocks or tiles with contrasting colors.

White marble dados sculpted with lifelike bas relief images of flowers and vines can be found on the tomb's lower walls. The carvings have been honed in detail to emphasize their intricateness, and the marble has been polished. The dado frames and archway spandrels have been adorned with pietra dura inlays, vines, flowers, and fruits that are highly stylized and almost geometric. The inlay stones used are made of yellow marble, jasper,and jade and are leveled to the wall surface.

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